Theword religion is derived from the Latin noun religion, which denotes bothearnest observance of ritual obligations and an inward spirit of reverence. Inmodern usage, religion covers a wide spectrum of meaning that reflects theenormous variety of ways the term can be interpreted. At one extreme, manycommitted believers recognize only their own tradition as a religion,understanding expressions such as worship and prayer to refer exclusively tothe practices of their tradition.
Althoughmany believers stop short of claiming an exclusive status for their tradition, theymay nevertheless use vague or idealizing terms in defining religion for example,true love of God, or the path of enlightenment. At the other extreme, religionmay be equated with ignorance, fanaticism, or wishful thinking.
Bydefining religion as a sacred engagement with what is taken to be a spiritualreality, it is possible to consider the importance of religion in human lifewithout making claims about what it really is or ought to be. Religion is notan object with a single, fixed meaning, or even a zone with clear boundaries.It is an aspect of human experience that may intersect, incorporate, or transcendother aspects of life and society. Such a definition avoid the drawbacks oflimiting the investigation of religion to Western or biblical categories suchas monotheism (belief in one god only) or tochurch structure, which are not universal. For example, in tribal societies,religion unlike the Christian church usually is not a separate institution butpervades the whole of public and private life. In Buddhism, gods are not ascentral as the idea of a Buddha. In many traditional cultures, the idea of asacred cosmic order is the most prominent religious belief. Because of thisvariety, some scholars prefer to use a general term such as the sacred todesignate the common foundation of religious life.
Religionin this understanding includes a complex of activities that cannot be reducedto any single aspect of human experience. It is a part of individual life butalso of group dynamics. Religion includes patterns of behavior but alsopatterns of language and thought. It is sometimes a highly organizedinstitution that sets itself apart from a culture, and it is sometimes anintegral part of a culture. Religious experience may be expressed in visualsymbols, dance and performance, elaborate philosophical systems, legendary andimaginative stories, formal ceremonies, and detailed rules of ethical conductand law. Each of these elements assumes innumerable cultural forms. In someways there are as many forms of religious expression as there are humancultural environments.
51.What is the passage mainly concernedabout?
A.Religion has a variety of interpretation.
B.Religion is a reflection of ignorance.
C.Religion is not only confined to the Christian categories.
D.Religion includes all kinds of activities.
Scienceis guided by the vast body of scientific laws that have been establishedthrough careful experimentation over the past 300 years. Although there is noprecise prescription for doing science, there is a general scheme for doingscience. Science begins when a natural phenomenon is observed that raises aquestion for which there is no known answer. Doing science involves thinking ofwarys to explain the natural phenomenon and answering the question raised. Thevarious explanations invented by a scientist involve a creative process that isbased on one’s own personal experiences as well as known scientific laws andtheories. Thinking of the initial question to ask about the observedphenomenon, and all conceivable(能想得出来的)explanations (orhypotheses) to explain the phenomenon are among the most creative moments in doingscience.
Ahypothesis is based on one’s personal life experiences, and can also embody aknown scientific theory or law. The combination of a theory or law that appliesto the phenomenon under study plus the scientist’s proposed hypothesis toexplain the phenomenon is called a model. A model can be a statement of aconcept, a physical model, a diagram, or a mathematical expression. The processof explaining the patterns and trends in data based on known scientific theoryis called modeling the data. A reason that a model is always simpler than theactual phenomenon observed is that the theories and laws are simplificationsand generalizations of the patterns observed in nature. The basic premise inscience is that knowledge is advanced when a correspondence is found betweenthe model and the observed phenomenon.
Thefoundations of scientific inquiry in the physical sciences rest on developingthe skills to pose a scientific question, to develop, to test and to apply ascientific model that adequately accounts for the observed phenomena.
55. Which of the following is the besttitle of the passage?
A.Hypothesis and Model in Science.
B.The Function of a Hypothesis.
C.How is Science Done?
D.Phenomenon and Scientific Inquiry.
TheU.S. Travel Association confirmed in a survey what many frustrated fliers alreadyknow: The No.1 airport headache is passengers who pull too many carry-on bagsthrough security and onto flights.
Thatnumber has skyrocketed in recent years—86 million more bags were carried on in theyear than during the same period two years earlier, the Transportation SecurityAdministration estimates.
Thereason for the carry-on jump is no mystery: All the major domestic airlines
now charge to check (托运) even one bag, generally $25. To save money and time at the baggageclaim, passengers carry as much as they can on board, with predictableconsequences.
Atsecurity checkpoints, these millions of extra bags, many of them densely packed,mean longer lines. Once past security, the fun continues at boarding. On atypical flight, there’s a fierce fight for scarce overhead bin space, extendingthe boarding process. Bags that are stuffed under seats make passengers evenmore uncomfortable.
Therehas got to be a better way. In fact, there is. Here’s what a more sensible systemwould look like: No fee for the first piece of checked luggage. It would bebetter if airlines simply raised fares( 机票) insteadof fees. Limit the carry-on size and charge for large carry-ons. Use templates(标尺) at the security checkpoints to cut off the monsterbags that now often escape airline staff’s notice until they’re right at the door of the plane. Tax the airlines’ income fromfees the same way that fares are taxed. Currently, the fees are tax free, encouraging airlines to generateincome through fees rather than fare increases.
We’resympathetic to the airline industry’s need to make money, but the baggage
fees—previously intended to offset rising fuelcosts—have become an interruption that slows down the security check, offloadscosts onto fliers and makes the boarding process even more unpleasant than italready is.
What makes the air travelers most frustratedat the airport?
A.The limited overhead bin space for bags.
B.The number of bags they carry onboard
C.The long line at the baggage claim.
D.The extra fee they have to pay for carry-ons.
Wecovet(垂涎)their food, their wine and their ability to stay slim whileconsuming both … but should we be admiring the French for their parenting skills, aswell?
Inher very buzzy new book, “Bringing Up Bebe,” American mom and Paris residentPamela Druckerman makes the argument that the French have a leg up on rearingtheir children.
“There’ssomething about the way the French parent that makes it less of a grind andmore of a pleasure,” writes Druckerman, a former Wall Street Journal reporter.She cites a 2009 study finding mothers in Ohio think caring for their childrenis far less pleasant than mothers in Rennes, France.
Whatexactly do French parents do that’s so different from American parents? A few examples:Teaching kids patience and self-control through delayed gratification: Frenchparents teach their children to wait for what they want from an early age—for afew minutes, usually— instead of immediately giving into kids’ demands.
“I’m now convinced that the secret of why French kids rarely whine or collapseinto tantrums(发脾气)—or at least do soless than American kids—is that they’ve developed the internalresources to cope with frustration,” Druckerman writes.
Sleeptraining often begins at birth: In France, babies are expected to besleepingthrough the night by the time they’re four months old. Parents don’tignore their babies’ cries but they do pause before responding to them.
“Frenchparents believe it’s their job to gently teach babies to sleep well,” shewrites. “They don’t view being up half the night with an eight-month-old as asign of parental commitment.”
Theydon’t give in to guilt over spending time away from their kids: French women believe that “it’s unhealthy formothers and children to spend all their time together. …Children—even babiesandtoddlers—get to cultivate their inner lives without a mother’s constantinterference.”
42.The underlined words “have a leg up” in Paragraph 2 probably means ______.
根据短语中的up一词，就可以推测其意思应该是正面积极的。由第一段的最后一句should we beadmiring the French for their parenting skills, as well? 我们是否也该羡慕法国人养育子女的能力?有下文可知法国人在养育子女方面是有很多优势的，故答案B符合。
LloydSlocum was unemployed for 18 months, but like hundreds of thousands ofAmericans, he’s working part time this holiday shopping season, unloadingtrucks and stocking shelves for a Bealls store in Port St. Lucie, Fla.
“Itgives you something to look forward to,” says Slocum, 29.
Heplans to use cash to buy his father a Christmas present and hopes to move on to a full-time position withBealls/Burke’s stores, a Sunbelt chain.
BlackFriday, the official start of holiday shopping heat, also kicks off the less-celebratedseason of the part-time worker. Retailers (零售商)aloneare hiring about 500,000 seasonal employeesthis year, most of whom are part time, according to the National Retail Federation. Retailers’recent shift toopening on Thanksgiving or midnight on Black Friday has intensified the needfor part-time workers.
Holidayjobs offer financial and emotional lifeline for many of the nation’s jobless. Theyalso point up a troubling reality: A near-record number of Americans areworking part time throughout the year, even though they would prefer full-timejobs. It is not just because of the recession (经济衰退).Economists cite a broader, longer-term shift toward part-time work as employerscut expenses and more precisely match staffing with ups and downs of customerdemand.
Thenumber of part-timers who really want full-time positions—so-called involuntarypart-time employees—has risen from 8.4 million in January to 8.9 million lastmonth, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The total has hung at 8.5million to 9 million since early 2009 —double thepre-recession level.
Bycontrast, the total of unemployed Americans has stayed flat at about 13.9 millionthis year and is down from about 15 million in late 2009 as employers had added2 million or so jobs. The gap shows how the nation’s official 9% jobless ratedoesn’t fully reflect the effect caused by a half-speed economic recovery.
48.In America, “Black Friday” usually marks the beginning of ______.
A.24-hour work shifts
D.a holiday shopping season
由关键词Black Friday定位到原文第四段的第一句话，Black Friday后面的同位语正好是对其意思的解释说明：黑色星期五是假期购物热的开始，故D正确。