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河南专升本英语必考的13种时态

来源:www.kuke99.com 发布时间:2018-11-08 标签:

摘要:库课网新闻让您的生活添加了新的色彩,注入了新的活力,为广大学生、职员能第一时间了解资讯动态

  在河南专升本考试中,英语是必考的。在英语学科中,时态无疑是最重要的语法内容,学好时态基本就拿下了语法的半壁江山,今天小编给大家整理了有关河南专升本考试中的13种时态,考生在复习的过程中一定要重视哦!


  一般现在时

  一般现在时表现在

  1. 表示现在经常性或习惯性的动作。如:

  My sister wears glasses. 我妹妹戴眼镜。

  He often goes to the cinema. 他经常去看电影。

  【注】询问某人的习惯时,有时还可用ever。如:

  “Do you ever eat meat?” “No, I never eat meat.”“你吃肉吗?”“从不吃肉。”

  2. 表示现在(或经常性)的情况或状态。如:

  Mother is ill. 母亲病了。

  He is always like that. 他总是那样。

  He likes living in the country. 他喜欢住在乡下。

  We need a lot of money. 我们需要一大笔钱。

  3. 表示现在的能力、特征、职业等。如:

  He sings well. 他唱歌唱得好。

  Mr. Smith teaches French. 史密斯先生教法语。

  4. 表示客观真理、科学事实、格言以及不受时间限制的客观存在。如:

  Summer follows spring. 春去夏来。

  Knowledge is power. 知识就是力量。

  The earth turns around the sun. 地球绕着太阳转。


  一般现在时表将来

  1. 当主句为将来时态或表示将来意义时,时间和条件的状语从句必须用一般现在时表将来。如:

  I’ll write to her when I have time. 我有空会给她写信。

  Turn off the lights before you leave. 走前关灯。

  If we hurry, we may catch the bus. 如果赶紧走我们可能赶得上公共汽车。

  Tell me in case you get into difficulty. 遇到困难请告诉我。

  【注】① 除表示时间和条件的状语从句外,表示让步、相似、比例的从句也必须用一般现在时表示将来。如:

  I’ll follow him wherever he goes. 他去哪儿,我就跟着去哪儿。

  Whatever you say, I won’t pay. 无论你说什么,我都不会付钱。

  Whether we help him or not, he will fail. 无论我们帮他与否,他都会失败。

  I’ll have a good time whether I win or lose. 赢也好,输也好,我都将会玩好。

  The more you eat, the fatter you will become. 你吃得越多就会越胖。

  ② 另外,当主句为用将来时态时,定语从句也通常用一般现在时表将来。如:

  I’ll give you anything you ask for. 你要什么我都给你。

  You can have anything I find. 我找到的任何东西你都可以拿去。

  Everyone who comes first will get a present. 每个先来的人都可得到一份礼物。

  2. 按照英语习惯,一个句子中若主要动词已经表明了所谈论动作的时间,那么与之相关的其他动词就不必再次指明同一时间,而往往使用一个比较简单的时态,如用一般现在时表示一般将来时等。比较。如:

  This discovery means that we will spend less on food.这一发现意味着我们将减少在食品上的花费。

  This discovery will mean that we spend less on food. 这一发现意味着我们将减少在食品上的花费。

  3. 在make sure(弄清楚),make certain(弄清楚),take care(注意,当心),be careful(注意,当心),mind(注意),watch(注意)等后的that从句中通常也只用一般现在时表示将来意义。如:

  Take care that it does not occur again. 注意别再发生这样的事。

  We must take care that no one sees us. 我们必须注意别让人看见我们。

  Make sure you come back soon. 你要保证快点回来。

  Be careful that you don’t hurt her feelings. 当心别伤了她的感情。

  Watch that the baby doesn’t go near the heater. 注意别让宝宝接近加热器。

  Mind you read the examination questions carefully before you begin to answer them. 在答题前要注意仔细阅读考题。

  【注】在it doesn’t matter, I don’t care, I don’t mind 等结构(以及类似结构)后的名词性从句也通常用一般现在表示将来意义。如:

  It doesn’t matter where we go on holiday. 我们去哪儿度假都行。

  Does it matter who goes first? 谁先去这有关系吗?

  I don’t care whether we win or lose. 我不在乎我们是赢还是输。

  Don’t you care what happens to them? 难道你不关心他们出什么事了?

  4. 在I hope , I bet, see (to it) 等后的宾语从句中通常用一般现在时表示将来意义,但有时也可直接用将来时态。如:

  I hope that you like [will like] it. 你希望你会喜欢它。

  I bet it rains [will rain] tomorrow. 我打赌明天会下雨。

  See (to it) that children don’t catch cold. 当心别让孩子感冒。

  I’ll see that nobody disturbs [will disturb] you. 我将确保没人打扰你。

  【注】see (to it) 后的that从句通常用一般现在时表将来,直接用将来的情形较少见。

  5. 在as, than 引出的比较状语从句中可用一般现在时表示将来,也可直接用将来时态。如:

  We’ll get there as soon as you do [will]. 你一到,我们就到。

  We’ll probably drive faster than you do [will]. 我们开车很可能比你快。

  6. 表示按规定、时间表、计划或安排要发生的动作。如:

  Are you on duty next weekend? 下周末你上班吗?

  The train leaves at 12:00. 火车12点开出。

  Where do we go now? 我们现在到哪里去?

  【注】用于此用法时,句中通常有具体的时间状语。

  7. 当主句为将来时态时,与之相关的by the time后接的从句要用一般现在时表示将来意义。如:

  By the time he comes, I will have left. 等他到时,我会已离开了。

  The film will have started by the time we get to the cinema.我们到电影院时电影会已经开始了。

  8. 表示现在将要宣布某事。如:

  I declare the meeting open. 我宣布会议开始。

  We learn Lesson Ten today. 今天我们学习第10课。

  9. 表示客观性很强的将来。如:

  Today is Friday, so tomorrow is Saturday. 今天是星期五,所以明天是星期六。

  My birthday is on a Sunday this year. 我今年的生日在星期天。

  【注】有时说话者对某一将来事实非常肯定,也用一般现在时。如:

  The future is bright. 前途是光明的。

  Final victory is ours. 最后的胜利是我们的。


  一般现在时表过去

  1. 用于某些动词(tell, say, hear, learn, gather等)表示不确定的过去时间。如:

  John tells me you will leave tomorrow. 约翰告诉我你明天离开。

  I hear that he got married last month. 我听说他上个月结婚了。

  Mary says you told her to come over here. 玛丽说是你让她到这儿来的。

  2. 当要陈述一个客观事实时,有时即使有过去时间状语也可用一般现在时。如:

  The story is set in the summer of 1937. 故事的背景是1937年夏天。

  The story begins in the year 1937. 故事开始于1937年。


  一般将来时

  一般将来时的定义

  一般将来时表示在现在看来即将要发生的动作或存在的状态。常用时间副词tomorrow, soon或短语next year / week / month, in a few days, in the future, sometime 做状语。如:

  What will you do this afternoon. 你今天下午干什么?

  We will have a meeting tomorrow. 我们明天要开会。

  He is going to study abroad next year. 明年他要出国学习。


  一般将来时的结构及应用

  (1) shall / will + 动词原形。表示即将发生的动作或存在的状态。特别是表示客观性的事情或在某条件下要发生的事情,只能用此结构。如:

  What shall we do if he doesn’t come? 如果他不来,我们该怎么办?

  Will you be free this evening? 今天晚上有空吗?

  I think he will tell us the truth. 我想他会告诉我们真实情况的。

  (2) be going to + 动词原形。表示已经计划或安排好了的事情,也可表示有迹象表明肯定要发生的事情。如:

  We are going to have a meeting to discuss the matter this evening. 今天晚上开会讨论这件事情。

  Look at the black clouds over there. I think it is going to rain soon. 看一看那边的乌云,我想天要下雨了。

  There is going to be an English evening this week. 本周要举行一个英语晚会。

  (3) be to + 动词原形。表示一种常规性的活动或注定要做的事情。如:

  Who is to clean the classroom today? 今天该谁打扫教室了?

  When are you to return your library book? 你什么时候要还图书?

  The bridge is to be completed by the end of this year. 这渡桥该在今年年底前完工。

  (4) be about to + 动词原形。表示就要做或正好要做的事情。往往暗含一种时间上的巧合,因此,句子不能再用时间状语。如:

  Don’t leave. Li Lei is about to come. 不要走了,李蕾就要来了。

  Be quiet. The concert is about to start. 安静下来,音乐演唱会就要开始了。

  (5) be +现在分词。表示即将发生的动作或存在的状态。这个句型中动词主要是瞬间动词:come, go, leave, arrive, begin, start, stop, close, open, die, join, borrow, buy等。如:

  Go ahead, and I’m coming. 走前面一点吧,我就来。

  The dog is dying. 那条狗要死了。

  Hurry up. The shop is closing. 快点,商店就要关门了。

  (6) 一般现在时。表示一种严格按照计划进行的动作。比方说,上课、飞机起飞、火车离站等。如:

  Don’t hurry. The meeting starts at a quarter past eight. 不要匆忙,回忆八点过一刻开始。

  The bus goes back at four thirty. 汽车四点返回。


  一般过去时

  一般过去时的定义

  一般过去时表示过去某一时候或某一段时间所发生了的事情或存在的状态。常与过去时间yesterday, this morning, just now, a moment ago, in May, last night / year / week, once upon a time, the other day, before …, when – clause, in the past连用。如:

  What did you do yesterday? 昨天你干了什么?

  I met Lin Tao this morning. 今天上午我会到了林涛。

  I was there a moment ago. 刚才我在那儿。


  一般过去时的应用

  (1) 表示过去某时所发生的动作或存在的状态。如:

  Liu Ying was in America last year. 刘英去年在美国。

  Jim rang you just now. 吉姆刚才给你打了电话。

  (2) 表示过去经常或反复发生的动作。常接时间副词often, usually, always, sometimes, every day / week, etc. 如:

  We often went out for a walk after supper. 我们过去常在晚饭后散步。

  We usually played together. 我们通常一起玩。


  一般过去时对谓语动词的要求

  一般过去时的谓语动词要用动词的过去式。动词过去式的构成分规则变化和不规则变化两种形式,不规则变化通常需要逐个记忆,规则变化则遵循以下原则:

  (1) 一般在动词后加-ed。如:

  play—played, offer—offered, weigh—weighed, destroy— destroyed, sign—signed.

  (2) 在以字母e结尾的动词后,只加-d。如:

  like—liked, provide—provided, hate — hated, date—dated。

  (3) 在以“辅音字母+y”结尾的动词后,则改y为i,再加—ed。如:

  supply—supplied, fly—flied, study— studied.

  (4) 在以单短元音的重读闭音节结尾且,末尾只有一个辅音字母的动词后,双写最后一个辅音字母,再加-ed。如:

  plan—planned, refer—referred, regret—regretted, ban—banned.


  特别说明

  有些动词的过去时,如:expect, hope, intend, plan, wanted 等一般过去时,后接不定式的完成时;或它们的过去完成时接不定式的一般式,都可表示过去未曾实现的意图、打算或希望。如:

  I hoped to have been invited to his wedding party. —I had hoped to be invited to his wedding ceremony. 我本希望他来邀请我参加他的婚礼。

  I intended to have joined their games. —I had intended to join their games. 我本打算参加他们的比赛。


专升本英语


  过去将来时

  过去将来时的定义

  过去将来时主要用于表示过去某个时候看来即将发生的动作或存在的状态。如:

  He said he would come here next Friday. 他说他下周星期五来这儿。

  I knew that he would help us when we were in trouble. 我知道当我们陷入困境时它会帮助我们。


  过去将来时的结构

  (1) would + 动词原形。如:

  She told us that she would try her best to catch up with other classmates this term. 她告诉我们说她将一切努力在本期赶上其他同学们。

  When you asked Li Lei for help, he would never refuse you. 过去当你请她帮忙时,他绝不会拒绝。

  (2) was / were going to + 动词原形。如:

  He told us that he was going to attend the meeting. 他告诉我说他要参加那次会议。

  He said that I was going to be sent to meet her at the railway station. 他说将要拍我去火车站接她

  (3) was / were to + 动词原形。如:

  The building was to be completed next month. 这座建筑改在下个月竣工。

  Li Lei was to arrive soon. 李蕾很快就要到了。

  (4) was / were about to + 动词原形。如:

  We were about to leave there when it began to rain heavily and suddenly. 就在我们要离开时,天突然下起了大雨。

  He was about to have lunch when the bell rang. 就在他要吃中饭的时候,门铃响起来了。

  (5) was / were +现在分词。如:

  He was leaving the next day. 他第二天要走了。

  We were informed that the leaders were coming to our school soon. 我们接到通知说领导们很快要来我们学校。


  过去将来时的用法

  (1) 过去将来时,一般用于主句为过去时的宾语从句中。如:

  He said he would stay with us. 他说他要与我们呆在一起。

  He said he would never go there again. 他说他绝不会再去那儿。

  (2) 过去将来时,用于虚拟语气中,如:

  If I were you, I would not do that. 要是我是你的话,我就不会那样做。

  If he were here, he would show us how to do it. 如果他在这儿,他就会向我们展示该如何做了。

  拓展

  was / were going to + 动词原形;was / were to + 动词原形;was / were about to + 动词原形等结构都可表达当时一种未曾实现的意图或打算。如:

  The conference was going to be held the next month. 会议下个月开。

  We were to have our class at eight. 八点我们该上课了。

  I was about to tell him about it when Wu Dong got in. 就在我要告诉他时,吴东进来了。


  现在进行时

  现在进行时的定义

  现在进行时主要用于表示目前正在进行的动作,有时也可表示现阶段在进行的动作。如:

  The teacher is giving us an English lesson. 老师正在给我们上英语课。

  The farmers are getting in their crops. 农民们正在收割庄稼。

  We are making preparations for the conference. 我们一直在为会议作准备。


  现在进行时的结构

  现在进行时由“am / is / are + 现在分词”构成。如:

  I’m studying at Yu Cai Senior Middle school. 我在育才中学读书。

  He is writing on the desk. 他再课桌上写字。

  They are talking about their visiting the Great Wall. 他们在谈论游长城的事情。

  【说明】动词现在分词的构成方法:

  (1) 一般在动词后加-ing。如:

  say—saying, play—playing, think—thinking, study—studying, teach —teaching, blow—blowing, build—building.

  (2) 动词若以-e结尾, 则去e再加-ing。如:

  love—loving, make—making, guide—guiding, date—dating.

  (3) 在以单短元音的重读闭音节结尾,且末尾只有一个辅音字母的动词后,双写最后一个辅音字母,再加-ing。如:

  begin—beginning, regret—regretting, plan—planning, ban — banning.

  (4) 在以ie结尾的动词后,改ie为y,再加-ing。如:

  lie—lying, die—dying, tie—tying.

  (5) 在以-c[k] 结尾的动词后加-king。如:

  picnic—picnicking, panic—panicking.


  现在进行时的应用

  (1) 表示目前正在发生或进行的动作。如:

  They are planting trees on the mountain. 他们在山上植树。

  Mother is preparing supper in the kitchen. 母亲在厨房做晚饭。

  (2) 有些非持续性动词的进行时可以表示动作即将进行或发生,或表示动作的重复。如:

  He is joining the army. 他要参军了。

  They are buying the house. 他们要买那座房子。

  (3) 当现在进行时中有always, forever, constantly, continually修饰时,表示说话人的赞赏或厌烦的感情。如:

  Why is the baby always crying? 为什么那个老是在哭。

  They are always helping us. 他们总是帮助我们。

  注意:表示状态、感觉、心理活动的静态动词,一般不使用语进行时态。


  现在进行时与一般现在时的区别

  (1) 现在进行时强调目前正在进行的动作,而一般现在时强调经常性或习惯性的动作。如:

  I’m reading a story now. 我在看一个故事。(目前正在干的事情)

  I read stories in my spare time. 我有空时看故事。(经常性的行为)

  (2) 现在进行时强调现阶段一直在进行的动作,而一般现在时只表动作的重复,而不表示动作的持续。如:

  What are you doing these days? 这几天你在干什么?

  They are learning English in the summer holiday. 他们暑假在学英语。

  They read English every day. 他们每天读英语。

  They play volleyball every Sunday. 他们每周星期天都打排球。

  (3) 表示短促动作的动词(如 jump, knock, beat, pick, skip等)的进行时,表示动作的重复。如:

  The girls are jumping over there. 女孩子们在那边跳。

  His heart is beating fast. 他的心脏跳得很快。

  (5) 某些表示希望或想法的动词(如hope, wonder, want等)的进行时可以表示委婉客气。如:

  I’m wondering whether you can help us now. 我不知道你现在能否给我们帮一忙。

  I’m hoping that you will succeed. 我正在希望你成功呢。


  过去进行时

  过去进行时的定义

  过去进行时主要表示过去某一时刻正在进行的动作,或表示过去某一阶段一直在进行的动作。如:

  I was having a talk with Li Hua at that time. 那时,我正在跟李华谈话。

  I was watching TV at home last night. 昨晚我一直在看电视。

  过去进行时的结构

  过去进行时由“was / were + 现在分词”构成。如:

  I was doing my lessons then. 那时,我在做功课。

  We were cleaning the house. 我们在打扫房子。

  使用过去进行时应注意的几点

  (1) 过去进行时可表示按计划、安排过去某时刻将要发生的动作。如:

  He said they were leaving for Beijing this afternoon. 他说他今天下午要去北京。

  (2) 动词hope, wonder等的过去进行时常用来表示提出要求,虽然表示现在的内容,但语气比一般现在时或一般过去时要委婉。如:

  I was wondering whether you could come to join us. 我想你能否过来跟我们一起活动?

  (3) 过去进行时中有always, forever, continually, constantly修饰时,表示说话人的赞赏或厌烦的感情。如:

  He was always thinking of others. 他总是想到人家。


  过去进行时与一般过去时的区别

  (1) 过去进行时强调动作在过去某时刻正在进行或持续,而一般过去时表示动作的完成。如:

  He was writing his composition last night. 他昨晚在写作文。(不一定写完)

  He wrote his composition last night. 他昨晚写了一篇作文。(已经写完)

  (2) 表示过去的状态、感觉及心理活动的静态动词(如be, like, love, hate, fear, own, hear, see, know, want, notice)可用于一般过去时,但通常不用于进行时。如:

  I hated it when a man spoke with his mouth full of food. 我讨厌人们说话时口里含着食物。

  (3) 一般过去时与always, constantly, forever, continually等连用,表示“过去经常性、习惯性的动作”;而过去进行时与always, constantly, forever, continually等连用,表示动作的重复,常带有感情的色彩。如:

  He always got up at six. 他过去总是六点起床。

  He was always thinking of his work. 他总是一心想到工作。

  (4) 有时过去进行时可以用来替换一般过去时,但一般过去时表示主语的行为是经过认真考虑的;而过去进行时表示一种较随便或没有进行仔细考虑的行为。如:

  I thought that he would agree with us. 我原以为它会同意我们的。

  I was thinking of persuading him to follow my advice. 我想到了要说服他接受我们的建议。


  现在完成时

  现在完成时的定义

  现在完成时既可表示过去发生的动作对现在所造成的结果或影响(此时通常连用的时间状语有already, yet, just, ever, before),也可表示动作从过去某时间开始,一直持续到现在,并且还有可能持续下去(此时通常连用的时间状语有this month / week / year, these days, recently / lately, in the past few + 时间段, since +时间点, for + 时间段)。如:

  I have just finished my work. 我把工作做完。

  Have you ever been to Beijing? 你曾经去过北京吗?

  I have lived for ten years. 我在这儿住了十年了。

  We have studied here since 2003. 我们自2003年来就在这儿读书了。


  现在完成时的结构

  现在完成时由“have / has + 过去分词”构成。

  现在完成时的应用

  (1) 非持续性动词go, come, leave, borrow, buy, die, join的完成时的肯定式不能与时间段连用,若要接用时间段状语,则应换成相应的持续动词或状态动词。如:

  He has left. 他走了。

  He has been away for an hour. 他走了一个小时了。

  Can I borrow that book? 我可以借那本书吗?

  How long can I keep the book? 这本书我可借多久?

  注意:非持续性动词的否定完成时可与时间段状语连用。如:

  He has not borrowed the book since then. 从此以后,他再也没有借这本书了。

  (2) have / has been to 表示曾经去过某地,但现在不在那儿;have / has gone to表示现在已去某地,现在不在这儿。如:

  He has been to Canada, but now he is working in our company. 他去过加拿大,现在在我们公司工作。

  Mr. Li is not at home. He has gone to Shanghai. 李先生不在家,他去上海了。

  (3) 完成时的肯定式常用already,而否定式和疑问句常用yet,但若already用于疑问句时,表示一种出乎意外的惊讶。如:

  Have you read it already? 你就看完了?

  现在完成时与其他时态的区别

  (1) 现在完成时与一般过去时的区别:现在完成时强调动作的结果或对现在的影响,属于现在时的范畴;一般过去时强调动作所发生的时间,属于过去时的范畴。因此,过去时需跟过去时间连用或有表过去时间的上下文连用,而现在完成时不能与过去时间连用。如:

  I read the book two weeks ago. 我两周前读了这本书。

  I have read the book for two weeks. 这本书我读过两周了。

  (2) 现在完成时与现在进行时:现在完成时强调动作持续到现在或刚结束;而现在进行时只强调目前的状态。如:

  They have talked for about two hours. 他们谈了大约两个小时。(强调动作的持续)

  They are talking. 他们在谈话。 (强调目前的状态)


  过去完成时

  过去完成时的定义

  过去完成时既可表示过去某个时间或动作之前所发生的事情(常用时间状语有already, before, ever, just, never, still, yet),也可表示过去某个时间或动作之前所发生的动作一直持续到过去某个时间(常接时间状语:since +时间点, for + 时间段)。如:

  When I got to the station, the train had left. 当我到达车站时,火车已经开走了。

  We had learnt fifteen lessons by last week. 到上周为止,我们学完了十五篇课文。

  He had stayed here for two days before he left. 他走之前在这儿呆了两天。

  He said that he had lived there since he was ten. 他说他十岁起就住在那儿了。


  过去完成时的结构

  过去完成时由“had + 过去分词”构成。

  过去完成时的应用

  (1) 与过去完成时连用的时间状语可以多种多样,使用它的主要依据是看其是否发生在“过去的过去”。如:

  He had learnt some English before I went here. 在来这儿之前我学过一些英语。

  He had written three stories by last year. 到去年他已经写了三篇故事。

  We had cleaned the room when he got there. 当他到那儿时,我们已经把房子弄干净了。

  He went there after he had finished his work. 他把事做完之后,就去哪儿了。

  注意:当主句跟由before, after, as soon as所引导的时间从句的动作连接很紧密时,从句也可用一般过去时。

  He went there after he read the letter. 他看了那封信后就去那儿了。

  (2) 过去完成时还经常用于主句为过去时的宾语从句中。如:

  He said he had been a soldier. 他说他当过兵。

  They said they had seen the film. 他们说这幕电影他们看过。

  (3) 在hardly / scarcely …when…, no sooner…than… 两个结构中的主句通常要用过去完成时。如:

  Hardly had I told her the news when she began to cry out. 她一听到这一消息就大哭了起来。

  Scarcely had he finished his supper when he went out. 他已吃完晚饭就出去了。

  No sooner had he fallen asleep than he lay down on the bed. 他一躺倒床上就睡着了。

  (4) 动词expect, hope, suppose, think, want等的过去完成时可用来表示未实现的计划、打算或希望。如:

  I had hoped to see you. 我本希望来看你。

  He had wanted to buy a house in Beijing. 他本想在北京买栋房子。


  过去完成时与一般过去时

  (1) 过去完成时表示以过去某时间为起点以前所发生的动作或存在的状态,即:过去完成时强调“过去的过去”,而一般过去时只表示以现在时间为起点以前所发生的事情或存在的状态。如:

  He studied there two years ago. 他在那儿学习了两年。(离现在两年)

  He said he had studied there two years ago. 他说他在那儿学习了两年。(离他说话时两年)

  (2) 表示过去某个时间以前所连续发生的两个或两个以上的动作时,一般用and, then, but按照动作的先后顺序连接,此时通常用一般过去时而不用过去完成时。如:

  He said he went the shop and bought some food. 他说他去商店买了一些食品。


  将来完成时

  将来完成时的基本用法

  表示到将来某个时间为止势必会完成或预计要完成的动作,由“will [shall]+have+过去分词”构成:

  He will have arrived by now. 他现在应当已经到了。

  He will have gone back to England.他想必回英国去了。

  When we get there,she’ll have gone to work. 我们到那里时她会已上班去了。

  On Monday he’ll have been in Britain for three years. 到星期一,他在英国就满三年了。


  现在完成时、过去完成时与将来完成的区别

  现在完成时以现在时间为参照点,表示在“现在”以前完成的动作或持续到“现在”的状态,过去完成时则以过去时间为参照点,表示在“过去”某一时间以前发生的动作或持续到“过去”某一时间的状态,将来完成时则以将来时间为参照点,表示在“将来”某一时间为止已经完成的动作或持续到“将来”某一时间的状态:

  He has finished writing his novel. 他已写完了他的小说。

  He had finished writing his novel by the end of last year. 去年年底他就写完他的小说。

  He will have finished writing his novel by the end of next year. 到明年年底他就会写完他的小说了。

  与一般现在时代替一般将来时一样,在表示时间或者条件的状语从句,通常要用现在完成时来表示将来完成时,而不能直接使用将来完成时:

  I will go with you when I have finished my work. 等我完成工作之后我就同你去。

  若不强调动作的完成(且不致于引起歧义),有时也可用一般现在时:

  I will go with you when I finish my work. 我完成工作后就同你去。


  过去将来完成时

  构成方法

  过去将来完成时由“would+have+过去分词”构成。

  用法及用例

  过去将来完成时表示在过去看来将来某时会已经完成的动作:

  She said she’d have finished her exams by then. 她说那时她会已经考完试了。

  I thought Sophia would have told you something. 我想索菲娅会已告诉你一地情况。

  I thought you would have finished by now. 我想你现在一定已经干完了。

  There are a lot of things I should have liked to ask you. 有好些事我本想问你的。

  He knew by the time he arrived she would have gone home. 他知道他到时她会已经回家了。

  Well, well! Who would have guessed it! 真是的! 这谁会想到呀!


  过去完成进行时

  结构形式

  过去完成进行时由“had been+现在分词”构成,因此无人称变化。

  用法归纳

  1.过去完成进行时表示持续到过去某时的一个动作(可算是现在完成进行时的过去式):

  The ground was wet. It had been raining. 地是湿的。此前一直在下雨。

  At last the bus came. I had been waiting for half an hour. 最后公共汽车来了,我已等了半小时。

  She was out of breath. She had been running. 她气喘吁吁,她一直在跑来着。

  He gave up smoking last year. He’d been smoking for twenty years. 去年他戒烟了。他抽烟已经二十年。

  2.过去时间可用一个时间状语表示:

  When I first met her, she had been working in the company for ten years. 我第一次见到她时,她在那家公司已工作十年了。

  I had not been waiting long when a taxi drew up. 我没等多久就来了一辆出租车。

  She had been looking at the parcel for some time before she realized that it was for her mother. 这包裹她看了好一会儿才明白这是寄给她妈的。

  Until/Up till then she had been living with her daughter. 到那时为止她一直和她女儿一起住。

  3.但在更多情况下过去时间由另一句子表示出来,毋需加上时间状语:

  Her eyes were red. It was obvious she had been crying. 她眼睛红红的,显然她是哭了。

  Jane was annoyed. Peter had been phoning her every night. 简很不高兴。彼得一直每晚给打电话。

  He was very tired. He had been working all day. 他很累。他干了一整天活。

  She couldn’t understand him. She hadn’t been learning English long. 她不懂他的话。她学语的时间还不长。

  I woke up—I had been having a bad dream. 我醒了,我做了个恶梦。

  She was very tired. She had been typing letters all day. 她很累了。她整天都在打信件。

  Her eyes were red. It was obvious she had been crying. 她的眼睛红了,显然她刚哭过。

  We had been doing business with each other for years before we quarrelled. 在吵翻之前,我们多年来在业务上一直来往。

  When I first met Ann, she had been working for Exxon for 15 years. 我第一次遇到安的时候,她已在埃克森公司干了15年了。

  Jenny was annoyed. Jim had been phoning her every night for a whole week. 詹妮生气了。整整一星期,吉姆天天晚上都给她打电话。

  4.有时上下文可说明是谈过去的事,因此不需要时间状语:

  She had been watching TV all day. 她看了一天的电视。

  I had been reading your book. 我一直在看你写的书。

  The rain had been pouring all night. 倾盆大雨下了一整夜。

  We had been travelling in many countries. 我们一直在许多国家旅游。

  5.这个时态也可用在某些从句中,这时从句的动作发生在主句的动作之前而对其有影响:

  I heard you’d been looking for me. 我听说你一直在找我。

  That was just the letter I had been expecting. 这正是我一直期待的信。

  That was exactly what we had been trying to do. 这正是我们一直想做的事。

  I wanted to know what had been going on. 我想知道一直在发生什么事。

  The drive increased the fatigue she had been feeling. 开车增加了她一直感到疲惫感觉。

  They said that they had been fighting for their rights all these years. 他们说这些年来他们一直在为他们的权利而斗争。


  特别补充

  1.凡不能用于进行时的动词均不能有这种时态,但动词want (有时还有wish) 除外。如:

  The boy was delighted with his new knife. He had been wanting one for a long time. 男孩对新小刀很高兴。他早就想要一把了。

  2.过去完成进行时没有被动语态。


  将来完成进行时

  结构形式

  将来完成进行时由“will / shall have been+现在分词”构成。

  用法归纳

  用法一:表示动作从某一时间开始一直延续到将来某一时间,至于是否继续下去,要视上下文而定。如:

  She will have been having treatment all her life. 她将终生受到治疗。

  By the end of next month he will have been here for ten years. 到下月底,他在这儿就够十年了。

  By this time next year, we will have been doing business with each other for 20 years. 到明年这时候,我们的业务住来就满20年了。

  By the end of this year he’ll have been acting for thirty years. 到今年年底他当演员就满30年了。

  用法二:表示一种经常性反复进行的持续性动作。如:

  By the end of this month he will have been training horses for twenty years. 到了这个月底他驯马就满20年了。

  By the end of this month he will have been climbing mountains for twenty years. 到了这个月底他登山就满20年了。


  2019河南专升本考试报名时间已经确定,报名开始时间:2018年11月22日9:00;截止时间:艺术、体育类为11月28日18:00,其他为12月5日18:00。考生一定要记好时间,以免错过。河南专升本考试只有一次机会,考生一定要好好把握。