In every cultivated language there are two great classes of words which, taken together, comprise the whole vocabulary.First, there are those words 1 which we become acquainted in daily conversation, which we 2 ,that is to say, from the 3 of our own family and from our familiar associates, and 4 we should know and use 5 we could not read or write.They 6 the common things of life, and are the stock in trade of all who 7 the language.
Such words may be called“popular”, since they belong to the people 8 and are not the exclusive 9 of a limited class.On the other hand, our language 10 a multitude of words which are comparatively 11 used in ordinary conversation.Their meanings are known to every educated person, but there is little 12 to use them at home or in the market-place.
Our 13 acquaintance with them comes not from our mother's 14 or from the talk of our school-mates, 15 from books that we read, lectures that we 16 ,or the more 17 conversation of highly educated speakers who are discussing some particular 18 in a style appropriately elevated above the habitual 19 of everyday life.Such words are called“learned”, and the20between them and the“popular”words is of great importance to a right understanding of linguistic process.
1.A.at B.with C.by D.through
2.A.study B.imitate C.stimulate D.learn
3.A.mates B.relatives C.members D.fellows
4.A.which B.that C.those D.ones
5.A.even B.despite C.even if D.in spite of
6.A.mind B.concern C.care D.involve
7.A.hire B.apply C.adopt D.use
8.A.in public B.at most C.at large D.at best
9.A.right B.privilege C.share D.possession
10.A.consists B.comprises C.constitutes D.composes
11.A.seldom B.much C.never D.often
12.A.prospect B.way C.reason D.necessity
13.A.primary B.first C.principal D.prior
14.A.tips B.mouth C.lips D.tongue
15.A.besides B.and C.or D.but
16.A.hear of B.attend C.hear from D.listen
17.A.former B.formula C.formal D.formative
18.A.theme B.topic C.idea D.point
19.A.border B.link C.degree D.extent
20.A.diversion B.distinction C.diversity D.similarity
The cultural values of a society determine the social norms of the society. The SOCIAL NORMS are the group-shared rules of behavior. These norms are the expected ways of behaving in the society based on the shared values--the purposes and goals--of that society. For example, because we place some value on physical modesty, we have the social norm of wearing clothes in public. To be an accepted member of society, one must live by the rules which that society imposes. When an individual does not behave according to these norms, that person is considered a deviant. A person who walks down the main street of an American city with no clothes on is regarded as a deviant, that is, a person who does not follow the standard rules of behavior.
Some norms apply to all persons in a particular situation. For example, in our culture all persons are expected to be quiet in a library; obey the traffic signals; eat with a knife, fork and spoon; stand during the playing of the National Anthem ; and pay their bills. These are just a few of the many norms that every member of our society is expected to follow.
1. As used in this passage, a deviant is someone who ______.
A. is a popular member of society
B. uses his money to help others
C. is a respected leader of society
D. does not obey the rules of society
2. The social norms of a society are determined by ______.
A. the government
B. members of the upper class
C. cultural values
D. the military
3. We can easily see that ______.
A. following some social norms is required by law
B. every person in America follows the social norms
C. social norms do not change from decade to decade
D. cultural values are the same for every society
4. Based on the passage which of the following actions is a form of deviant behavior?
A. Being quiet in church.
B. Going to school.
C. Cheating on a test.
D. Wearing clean clothes.
1~4: D C A C